OK -

I've read the sticky's here and documents in other places regarding TEFRA, the difference between medical supervision and medical direction for medicare purposes, and the explanations of the opt-outs in certain (16, now, right?) states.

However, I cannot find information regarding practice rights of CRNAs in states which have not "opted out," and are NOT in ACT practice. I live in PA (a very non-opt out state)...

Do CRNAs in PA who do not use medicare reimbursement (read: ACT practice) need to have any sort of collaborative agreement with any physician?

I've gone through the PA SBON, and they have nothing regarding CRNAs. The PA SBON is clear that NPs and CNMidwvies need a collaborative agreement.

Thanks!