Venous air embolism is hazardous because:

  1. a probe-patent foramen ovale exists in approximately 15% of adults
  2. air bubbles may traverse the bronchial veins into the left side of the heart
  3. it obstructs the pulmonary outflow tract
  4. it increases pulmonary shunting


Any and/or all of the above answers may be correct!


Answer to follow in a few days:hmmmm2: